Climate changes

Regulatory Framework on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with 197 Parties, was adopted at the Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Conference) in June 1992 as a framework for international cooperation to fight Climate Change.

The Convention entered into force on March 21th 1994, and has the fundamental objective of “stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) at a level that will prevent anthropogenic interference with the climate system, so that ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change; food production is not threatened; and development can happen in a sustainable way”.

In 1995, the Convention Parties presented a process to strengthen the global response to Climate Change and two years later (1997), at COP3, the Kyoto Protocol which establishes quantified emission limitations/reductions commitments for developed countries was adopted.

From 2008 to 2012, developed countries, made the commitment to collectively reduce their emissions by 5.2% in relation to 1990 levels. The Kyoto Protocol started strong in December 2012, and Parties adopted the Doha Amendment, which establishes the Second Commitment Period of 2013 – 2020.

For the Doha Amendment to start strong it must be ratified by 144 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol ratifying this instrument, and they must represent 55% of 1990 emissions. To date, 139 Parties have ratified the Amendment. Today the Convention has 197 Parties of which 196 are countries and one regional economic integration organization, the European Union.

Mozambique is Part of the UNFCCC, since November 1995, as a result of the ratification of this instrument, by the Assembly of the Republic through Resolution n◦ 1/94, of 24th August. The country is also part of the Kyoto Protocol since 15th of January, 2005, and to the Paris Agreement since 4th June, 2018.

Mozambique and Climate Change Commitments

  • As a part of the UNFCCC, Mozambique has regularly assumed its national emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) by sources and removals by carbon sinks;
  • integrate Climate Change into socio-economic development policies, strategies and plans;
  • promote education, awareness and dissemination on Climate Change issues;
  • development and transfer of adaptation and mitigation technologies;
  • promote public participation in Climate Change actions and public access to information;
  • preparing national communication and making the COP available.

In order to fulfil the commitments made by the country with the ratification of UNFCCC, Mozambique relies on internally available resources, with emphasis on the State Budget, as well as others externally accessible, such as the financial mechanism established under the Convention aimed at helping developing countries to bear the costs of adaptation and mitigation.

Vulnerability to Climate Change effects

Mozambique is especially vulnerable to the effects of Climate Change due to its geographical location in the inter-tropical convergence zone and downstream of shared hydrographic basins, its long coastline and the existence of extensive areas below the current sea level.

Contributing to its vulnerability and low adaptive capacity are, among other factors, poverty, limited investments in advanced technology and the fragility of infrastructures and social services, especially health and sanitation.

In the country, Climate Change is manifested through changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, rising sea levels and both the frequency and intensity of weather-related disasters such as droughts, floods and tropical cyclones that affect different regions of the country every year.

The consequences include loss of human lives, agricultural crops, domestic animals and wildlife, destruction of social and economic infrastructure, increased dependence on international aid, increased prices of agricultural products, deterioration of human health, environmental degradation and loss of ecosystems.

Climate Change thus represents a setback to the efforts of the Government and its partners to fight poverty and pursue the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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