Biodiversity Potential

The Conservation Areas (AC) occupy about 18.57 million hectares, which correspond to about 25% of the national territory, and include National Parks, National Reserves, Official Coutadas, Community Conservation Areas and Bravio Farms. So far, around 10.000 species of flora and fauna have been catalogued, and 5.743 species of plants have been registered, of which 250 are endemic. 4,271 species of terrestrial fauna have already been catalogued, including insects, birds, mammals and amphibians.

The National Elephant Census, carried out in 2014, estimated that, between 2008-2014, the country lost about 48% of the elephant population, and the Censuses located in the Niassa Reserve indicated that, between 2011 and 2014, the Niassa Reserve had sharp losses of elephant herds from 12.000 animals to 4.441 (62%), having been considered the most dramatic period in the management and protection of this species.

The National Elephant Census carried out in 2018 indicated that, between 2014-2018, elephant population losses were situated at 10%, having been estimated at 9.114 individuals throughout the national territory and, in the same period, in the Niassa Reserve, the elephant population decreased from 4.441 to 3.238, hence 27%.

Until 2014, we lost around 1200 Elephants per year, against around 360 registered from 2015 to 2018, however from 2018 to 2020, the Niassa Reserve did not lose any elephants resulting from poaching.

In terms of the distribution of the Elephant population throughout the country, we have:

  • North Zone – with 50% of the total population corresponding to 4,514
  • Central Zone – with 17% of the total corresponds to 1,571
  • South Zone – with 33% of the corresponding total 3,029

There was an increase in the numbers of some species, namely:

  1. Piva to 69.545 corresponding to 23%;
  2. Buffalo, 64.631, corresponding to 25%;
  3. Palapala, 25.852 corresponding to 12%;
  4. Impala, 20.931 corresponding to 16%;
  5. Cudo, 15,729, corresponding to 9%; and
  6. Zebra, 12,207, corresponding to 7%.

As part of the strengthening of conservation areas for greater robustness of the animal population and the promotion of ecotourism, faunal repopulation was carried out with 9,655 animals of different species.

This repopulation benefited the Maputo Special Reserve, Limpopo National Park, Zinave National Park, Gorongosa National Park, Gilé National Reserve and Official Coutadas numbers 9, 10, 11 and 12, Vilanculos Fauna Sanctuary, Karingani Game Reserve and Spears Investments.

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